Difference Between Glucose and Glycogen (With Table)

Glucose is a sort of sugar that approaches carbohydrates in the food that is fabricated by the body Glucose gets hold from foods, fats, and protein reserved as Glycogen. Glycogen is the configuration of Glucose that is reserved in the liver and muscle tissue which is a dominant construction block of the muscles.

Glucose vs Glycogen 

The main difference between Glucose and Glycogen is that Glucose is digested into pyruvic acid, which then acts in many different ways in cells to create energy, whereas Glycogen can be broken down into several more complex as well as simpler sugars. However, this process is not quite as rapid as the process for the metabolism of glucose.

Glucose is made in green plants by the photosynthesis process using sunlight to split water into oxygen and hydrogen ions. This reaction produces carbon dioxide and water as by-products. These by-products are used directly or converted into other molecules that are only stored in the endoplasmic reticulum.

Glycogen is an important energy storage molecule synthesized from glucose. Glycogen is a polysaccharide, which means it consists of many monosaccharide units, making it easy to break down for use as a glucose source. It is also stored in the pancreas, and a small amount of glycogen is present in other tissues.

Comparison Table Between Glucose and Glycogen

Parameters of Comparison




Glucose is a sort of sugar that is utilized by cells for energy.

Glycogen is a conformation of starch that is established in animals and plants.


It is fabricated from compounded carbohydrates when the body shatters them downwards for energy.

It is fabricated of chains of glucose components linked together.


Glucose molecules are exceptionally microscopic.

Glycogen molecules are exceptionally towering.


It’s a monosaccharide that encompasses two molecules well-known as glucose.

It is a polysaccharide that encompasses countless molecules well-known as glucose.

Atom Construction

The additional oxygen atom is unavailable.

The additional oxygen atom is established on the first carbon atom.

What is Glucose?

Glucose is absorbed into the bloodstream utilizing specific glucose transporter molecules on cellular membranes. In the liver, glucose is stored as glycogen, or as simple glucose, in the form of glycogen storage disease. Certain enzyme lactase hydrolyzes lactose to produce glucose and galactose. Glucose is also a critical metabolic fuel for many of the brain’s processes.

Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that gives food energy through its combination with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. It is also the form in which glucose circulates in the blood as blood sugar. Glucose is a type of simple carbohydrate. When your digestive system breaks down most carbohydrates, it first separates them into glucose molecules and then absorbs these simple sugars into your bloodstream.

Glucose is a category of sugar that is obligatory for metabolism that it is obtained through the consumption of food. When Glucose penetrates a cell where it is engaged by covalent bonds with enzymes in a glycolysis reaction. This is due to a process known as non-covalent bond energy.

What is Glycogen?

Glycogen is a component of many important human functions, such as the creation of red blood cells and immunity because glycogen is stored in muscles and the liver. It can be used as a source of energy during times of high demand, such as during intense exercise or in times of starvation. However, it takes time to create glucose from glycogen.

Glycogenolysis occurs when the muscles demand glucose, and insulin excess stimulates the release of glucose from glycogen. The resulting increase in glucose levels triggers glucagon secretion and a drop in blood pH. The resulting decrease in pH causes the breakdown of glycogen to occur. Hydrolysis occurs when a low level of ATP is needed and when there is a buildup of lactic acid in the muscle, which can increase the breakdown of glycogen if it is not replenished with enough oxygen to prevent respiratory acidosis.

Glycogen is synthesized into glucose chains, which can be almost limitless in length. Glucose units are then added from the breakdown of glycogen or other high-energy molecules like creatine phosphate and glycerol. These required enzymes are present during the initial breakdown of glycogen, but they need to be activated by phosphorylation to continue forming glycogen. Glycogenesis is also controlled by a variety of hormones.

Main Differences Between Glucose and Glycogen

  1. Glucose is an uncomplicated sugar established in the body and is the chief origin fuel for the body, whereas Glycogen is the fundamental fuel of Glucose throughout times of starvation, which can be utilized to furnish energy to the body.
  2. Glycogen is found mainly in skeletal muscle, whereas there is a natural store of glucose within the body, which can be released into the bloodstream when needed to supply energy.
  3. Glucose molecules are extraordinarily microscale, whereas Glycogen molecules are extraordinarily high-rise.
  4. The atom construction is unavailable in Glucose, whereas, The atom construction is available in Glycogen.
  5. Glucose is assembled from an amalgamation of carbohydrates when the body shatters, whereas Glycogen is assembled of shackles of glucose components associated together.


Both Glucose and Glycogen are sugars that are stored for use by the body. They are both produced by breaking down sugars in the body. Moreover, they both have six carbons and twelve hydrogens. Glucose is also a vital source of energy for your body’s cells and allows them to carry out various chemical reactions that are essential to life. Glucose is the only type of sugar that can be used by your cells to produce energy.

Glucose has several other essential biological functions, too, such as providing material for synthesis into DNA and cell membranes and sustaining brain function. Glycogen is a carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscle tissue, which can be broken down and converted to glucose when blood sugar levels are low. Glycogen is a storage molecule, meaning that it can only store glucose in the body. The carbohydrates in food contribute to the storage of glycogen, as do certain vitamins and minerals.


  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1006870419309
  2. https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1113/jphysiol.2011.224972
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/000326978990081X