Difference Between Micronutrients and Macronutrients (With Table)

Good nutrition is a must for being a healthy being and it is a must for a good and happy lifestyle. Healthy nutrition can be achieved by having a balanced diet. Micronutrients and Macronutrients play a very important role in calculating the amounts of food which must be included. They play different roles in your body and are responsible for the very big and small functioning of the body. Therefore it is important to understand the compositions required in the body.

Micronutrients vs Macronutrients

The main difference between Micronutrients and Macronutrients is based on the amounts in which they are needed in a body for a healthy lifestyle. Micronutrients are needed in a very minute amount in a body for healthy functioning whereas Macronutrients are required in a very large amount in comparison with micronutrients. They both will give their part for the proper functioning of the body.

Plant-based elements are needed in very tiny amounts and are mainly accountable for the healing of damaged tissues and cells, as well as the avoidance of contagious diseases by combating disease-causing organisms such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Calcium, iron, vitamins, iron, minerals, and vitamin C are examples of micronutrients.

Plant-based nutrients are needed in significant amounts since our bodies cannot create them on their own. This macronutrient composition provides energy and sustains the body’s many metabolic systems, as well as its growth and development. Fats, proteins, carbs, vitamins, and minerals are all macronutrients.

Comparison Table Between Micronutrients and Macronutrients

Parameters of Comparison



Another name

Trace element

Major element




Consequences of deficiency

Anemia, Goiter, Scurvy

Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, Malnutrition.


Less than 1 mg/gm

Equal to 1 mg.

Consequences of Overconsumption

Liver and nerve damage

Cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, obesity, etc.

What are Micronutrients?

Vitamins and minerals in particular are referred to as micronutrients. Proteins, lipids, and carbs, on the other hand, are macronutrients. Micronutrients are required at lesser levels than macronutrients. It’s for this reason that they’re referred to as “micro.” Humans must get micronutrients from food since, for the most part, the body is unable to synthesize vitamins and minerals. They’re also known as vital nutrients because of this.

Vitamins are organic substances that are produced by living organisms and can be degraded by heat, acid, or air. Minerals, on the other hand, are inorganic substances that occur in soil and water and therefore can not be broken down.
When you eat, you take the vitamins and minerals that plants and animals made or absorb.

Because each food’s micronutrients content varies, it’s better to consume a range of meals to acquire sufficient vitamins and minerals. Because each vitamin and mineral has a distinct purpose in your body, an appropriate intake of all micronutrients is required for optimal health.

Vitamins and minerals are essential for growth, immunity, brain development, and a variety of other activities. Certain micronutrients have a role in illness prevention and treatment depending on their function.

What are Macronutrients?

Macronutrients, including comprising fat, carbs, and proteins, are elements that your health need in significant amounts. They’re termed “macros” since they’re the nutrients that give you energy. Macronutrients are nutritional elements that the human body needs to keep its frameworks in good working order. Humans need to have all macronutrients in their diet to be healthy, so don’t cut out or greatly limit any of these.

Protein is required for a variety of bodily processes, including:

  1. Structure of the tissue
  2. System of hormones
  3. System of metabolism
  4. System of transportation
  5. Metabolism-regulating enzymes
  6. Keeping the acid/base environment in check

Carbohydrates constitute your body’s principal source of energy. Carbohydrates should account for 45 to 65 percent of your daily calorie intake. The sort of food you eat for carbs is probably the sort of food you eat for protein and is a must for your body.

Fat is an essential component of daily nutrition. Fat is required by human health for the following functions:

  1. Unsaturated fatty acids are those that your body cannot produce on its own a substance found in cell walls
  2. An energy source
  3. Vitamin K, E, D, and A, as well as fat-soluble vitamins, are absorbed.
  4. Protecting your organs and insulating your body

Main Differences Between Micronutrients and Macronutrients

  1. Another name by which micronutrients is known as Trace element whereas macronutrient is also known by major element. They are also known for the short word in normal language as macro and micro.
  2. Micronutrients are necessary for a little quantity in the body for maintaining health as a healthy and active lifestyle, whereas Macronutrients are necessary for a much larger number than a micronutrient.
  3. The consequences of the deficiency of micronutrients are very serious like Anemia, Goiter, Scurvy which can lead to chronic issues in life whereas the consequences of macronutrients are Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, Malnutrition which can degrade your quality of life.
  4. The concentration which is needed in the body for the healthy functioning of micronutrients is less than 1 mg/gm which is minute whereas macronutrient required in the body is equal to 1000 mg or 1g.
  5. The consequences of overconsumption of micronutrients are liver and nerve damage whereas Cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, obesity, etc. are the consequences of overconsumption of macronutrients.


Water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macro minerals, and essential minerals are the four types of micronutrients. Every vitamin and mineral has different functions, dietary sources, and recommended intakes. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals that the human body need in minute amounts.

However, they have a significant influence on a person’s health, and a lack of any of them can result in serious and even life-threatening illnesses. Anemia is caused by a shortage of iron, folate, and vitamins B12 and A. Grain, fruits, legumes, and starchy vegetables are the main sources of carbohydrates. Eggs, meat, fish, and soy products are high in protein, whereas avocados, nuts, seeds, cooking oils, and fatty fish are high in fat.


  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849052000066
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1369526609000284