Difference Between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity (With Table)

Learning about the universe comes under the branch of physics. But this subject is further divided into many other subjects. Quantum mechanics and general relativity explain further about these concepts. Studying them will explain the behavior of matter and energy. People who are interested in learning about them should have a great understanding of math concepts. 

Quantum Mechanics vs General Relativity

The main difference between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity is that quantum mechanics is a part of physics where it explains how things are making atoms work. General relativity is a set of physical and geometric principles, and it also has the theory of gravity. Quantum mechanics was invented by Niels Bohr and Max Planck. Whereas general relativity was invented by Albert Einstein. 

Quantum mechanics explains the working or universe at a smaller scale than atoms. It can also be called a quantum theory or quantum physics. It is mainly used for the calculation of properties. This is applied to microscopic systems. Some of them are molecules, subatomic particles, and atoms. It is the study of very smaller things. Max Planck is the father of quantum mechanics. 

General relativity is a theory of gravity. Gravity is called a warping or curving of space. The general idea is that an invisible force attracts one object with another object. If the object is more massive, then it warps more around the space. The behavior of objects in space and time will be explained. Black holes’ existence can also be predicted in general relativity.

Comparison Table Between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

Parameters of Comparison

Quantum Mechanics

General Relativity


It is a part of physics that explains how things make up atoms work.

It is a set of physical and geometric principles and a theory of gravity.




Invented by

Niels Bohr and Max Planck

Albert Einstein


It provides accurate descriptions.

It gives the understanding of black holes.


The exact location of a particle in space cannot be predicted.

It does not respect local energy-momentum.

What is Quantum Mechanics?

It is a branch of mechanics. It deals with the mathematic description of motion, uncertainty principle, incorporates quantization of energy concepts, wave-particle duality, subatomic particles interaction, and correspondence principle. It is used for finding the behavior of physical systems. It uses some set of principles for explaining the behavior of matter and energy. Physicists, scientists, and chemists used to have a great interest in quantum mechanics.

These concepts and techniques are essential in many areas of science and technology. It deals with materials sciences, electronic devices, nanotechnology, and photonics. Maths is very important for dealing with quantum mechanics. People who want to study quantum mechanics should have a strong understanding of complex numbers, differential, and integral equations. It acts as a tool for understanding the theoretical level of the electronic structure.

It also helps in understanding the mechanism, kinetics of chemical reactions, and thermodynamics. But Einstein disliked quantum mechanics. Because he thought everything was certain, these things could be calculated easily. He rejected quantum mechanics due to its uncertainty factor. It cannot predict the outcome of the future. It can only predict the likelihood of a different outcome. In the future, it will take over the technologies. It is simply the recognition that there are no particles and waves. 

What is General Relativity?

The metric theory of gravitation is called general relativity. It can predict the mercury planet’s behavior in its orbit and light bending because of gravity. It is one of the major building blocks of modern physics. General relativity was contributed by Albert Einstein. He proved this theory in three different ways. It was developed between 1907 and 1915, along with the contribution of many others. This has been confirmed by many times.

This theory is based on Albert Einstein’s understanding of how gravity affects the space-time fabric. He even published the theory of special relativity, which was established 10 years later. He spent two decades proving these theories. To understand general relativity, you need to first understand relativity. It is one of the towering achievements of the 20th century. It is exceedingly complex and has many consequences. 

Another consequence of general relativity is that it will flow at different rates. This is dependent on the strength of the gravitational field. It provides insights into the deep and profound connection between mass and space-time. It gives insights into the equivalence of inertia and gravitation, time slowing down with gravity, and the structure, origin, and evolution of the universe. Not only this, but it also provides insights on many other things. It is a geometric theory and uses the mathematics of higher-dimensional topology. 

Main Differences Between Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity

  1. The definition of quantum mechanics is that it is a part of physics that explains how things make atoms work. On the other hand, the definition of general relativity is that they are a set of physical and geometric principles along with the theory of gravity.
  2. The evolution of quantum mechanics was in the year 1925. On the other hand, the evolution of general relativity was in the year 1916.
  3. Quantum mechanics was invented by Niels Bohr and Max Planck. On the other hand, General Relativity was invented by Albert Einstein.
  4. The advantage of quantum mechanics is it gives accurate descriptions. On the other hand, the advantage of general relativity is it provides an understanding of black holes.
  5. The disadvantage of quantum mechanics is that it cannot predict the exact location of a particle in space. On the other hand, the disadvantage of general relativity is local energy-momentum is not respected.


Both quantum mechanics and general relativity come under physics. These subjects will give a good understanding of the universe. But the thing in quantum mechanics is uncertain. This makes Einstein abandon this topic. Whereas he is the one who invented general relativity because it is certain.

He also gave 3 proofs for general relativity. Even though it has some disadvantages, he has proof for that. This person almost spent two decades along with other contributors for providing general relativity along with its extension. General relativity mostly uses geometrical theory along with some mathematical concepts. Whereas quantum mechanics mainly focuses on mathematical concepts like differentiation and integration. 


  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01225149
  2. https://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0303100