The human reproduction system produces EGG (Ovum) and sperm to produce the new generation. The female gamete named as ovum (egg) is produced by ovary. The release of ovum named as ovulation. In female. The sperm is the gamete produced by testis. The ovulation occurs during the reproductive age (from menarche to menopause). Even though there are no clear cut onset of sperm ejaculation and stopping of ejaculation, males will produces sperms from their teenage till age of 70 to 75.
Ovum is large compared with sperm. Ovum (egg) contains the cytoplasm, mitochondria and half of the DNA for the new cell. The sperm contains the half of the DNA. Both halves from ovum and sperm will join and form the new diploid cell ( the embryo).
Ovum is formed and released cyclically. In regular 28 days menstrual cycle, the ovulation will occur in the 14th day of the cycle. There are two ovaries in female. So one side ovary will ovulate alternative cycles.
The sperm production is continuous. The sperm production and maturity takes about 70 -72 days. which is longer compared with ovum production.
The sperm is produced by the testis. Sperm production needs less than the body temperature. So the testis are kept in the scrotal bags which hangs out from the body. The core temperature of the testis is about 2 degree less than the body temperature.
The sperm is motile. It has a tail to swim. The active motility helps him to swim in the female reproductive tract and reaches the fallopian tube, there it meets the egg usually.
The life span of the sperm in the female genital tract is 72 hours. But ovum has a little shorter lifespan. Ovum will survive for 48 hours from the ovulation.
During ovulation only one ovum (usually) is produced in human. But in an ejaculation millions of sperm will be there in a ml of semen.
• Both egg and sperm are the cells needed for human reproduction.
• Both have 23 chromosomes.
• Egg is produced by females, usually at the 14th day of menstrual cycle.
• Sperm is produced continuously in males from his adolescent to old age.
• Sperm has tail, and it can actively move. Ovum is oval in shape, cant move it’s own.
• Egg is bigger in size compared with sperm.