Difference Between Sun and Moon (With Table)

In the sky or solar system, the sun and moon are the 2 most conspicuous celestial objects. From our vantage point, the Sun and the Moon appear to be almost identical in size. As a result, solar eclipses can occur, in which the Moon crosses in front of the Sun, just covering it from our perspective. Even though they are both celestial objects, they vary in terms of form, mass, and influence on the Earth and solar system.

Sun vs Moon

The main difference between the sun and moon is that the sun evolved from the solar nebula, a massive cloud, and dust that imploded due to gravity. When this happened, the matter that was drawn toward the center became the sun. On the other hand, the Earth did not have a moon when it emerged in the early solar system. When a massive planet impacted the Earth, the moon was most likely formed. The particle cloud that resulted ascended and finally concentrated into the moon.

The Sun is 149,600,000 kilometers distant from Earth. It is a yellow dwarf star at the solar system’s core. The interplay of the sun and the earth is responsible for weather, ocean circulation, seasons, climate, and so on. There would have been no life on Earth if the Sun did not provide heat, energy, or light.

The Moon, a celestial body, is the Earth’s sole natural satellite. It circles the Earth once every 27.322 days and completes one spin. Its normal distance from Earth is around 238,855 miles (384,400 km). It is approximately 27 percent the size of the Earth and has a diameter of 2,159 miles. 

Comparison Table Between Sun and Moon

Parameters of Comparison




A yellow dwarf star at the center of the solar system

A celestial body that orbits the Earth.


1.4 million Km across

3,474 Km across


Produces its light

Reflects the light of the sun

Distance from Earth

92,900,000 miles away

238,855 miles away

Heat Source

Nuclear fusion occurs at its core

Heated by the sun


15 million degrees Celsius at the core; 5,500 degrees Celsius at the surface

134 degrees Celsius on the light side; –153 degrees Celsius on the dark side

What is Sun?

The Sun, which is located in the outer reaches of the Milky Way Galaxy, was generated from material that was processed within a supernova. The Sun is not, contrary to popular belief, a tiny star. Although it is halfway between the smallest and largest stars of its class, there are so many dwarf stars that the Sun is in the top 5% of stars in its immediate vicinity.

The solar system is held together by the Sun’s gravity, and the induced charges in the Sun generate a magnetic field that is disseminated over the solar system by solar radiation, which is a stream of high-energy particles discharged from the Sun in all dimensions. The calendar year and day are based on the sun, which the Earth circles. The sun spins once every about 25 days.

The Sun’s surface temperature is so extreme that no solid or liquid can survive; the constituent constituents are largely gaseous atoms with a handful of molecules. As a result, there is no permanent covering.

The Sun has been burning for 4.6 billion years. According to model simulations, the Sun illuminates by 10% per billion years, meaning that it is now at minimum 40% brighter than it was during the period of planet formation. This would cause the Earth’s temperature to rise, but there is still no indication of this in the fossil evidence. The greenhouse effect and cloud cover were most likely thermostatic factors on the Earth’s atmosphere.

The newborn Sun may have been larger and so brighter, but it would have shed its early mass owing to the solar wind. The Sun is the Solar System’s primary star. It is a virtually perfect ball of hot plasma that has been warmed to incandescence in its core by nuclear fusion operations, and it distributes energy mostly as visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared radiation.

What is the Moon?

The Moon is a planetary-mass object that evolved into a separate rocky body, making it a satellite planet, according to geophysical criteria. It is devoid of an atmosphere, a hydrosphere, and a magnetic field. It possesses about one-sixth the surface gravity of Earth.

The moon’s core is quite small, accounting for about 1 to 2 percent of the total mass of the moon. It also has a very thin atmosphere, which allows even a footprint to go unnoticed for decades.

It is a spherical rocky satellite with a small metallic core that circles Earth in a slightly eccentric orbit at around 384,000 kilometers on average. Moon has an equatorial radius of 1,738 km and a flattened shape that protrudes slightly toward Earth.

The Moon is Earth’s only natural satellite. It is the Solar System’s largest natural satellite in proportion to the size of a giant planet, the fifth largest satellite overall, and larger than any known dwarf planet. It is approximately one-quarter the size of the Earth.

Its English name is derived from Germanic and Old English. Throughout history, the Moon’s stark beauty has piqued people’s interest and produced a rich cultural and metaphorical legacy. 

The Moon was revered as a divinity in ancient cultures, and its dominance was evident in its cyclical control over the tides and the cycle of female fertility. The Moon is claimed to have the power to embed magic in spells, transform humans into monsters, and send people’s behaviors teetering perilously between sane and insane.

Main Differences Between Sun and Moon

  1. The Sun is a yellow dwarf star in the core of the solar system, while the Moon is a celestial body that circles the Earth.
  2. The sun is 1.4 million kilometers across, whereas the moon is 3,474 kilometers across.
  3. The sun generates its light, whereas the moon mirrors the sun’s light.
  4. The sun is 92,900,000 miles distant from the earth, whereas the moon is 238,855 miles away.
  5. The sun’s heat source is nuclear fusion at its center, whereas the moon is heated by the sun.
  6. The temperature of the sun is 15 million degrees Celsius at its core and 5,500 degrees Celsius at its surface, whereas the temperature of the moon is 134 degrees Celsius on the light side and –153 degrees Celsius on the dark side.


The sun and moon are the two most visible celestial objects in the Earth’s sky. They have a tremendous impact on people’s everyday life, yet they are quite diverse in terms of their properties and consequences on the solar system and the Earth. Both of these bodies have been the focus of intense scientific inquiry, as well as myths and legends passed down through the generations.


  1. https://projecteuclid.org/journalArticle/Download?urlid=10.1007%2FBF02417081
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0885201496900155